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徽州的传统工艺香

 



取出备料

丁香、山奈、茴香、过山香、草寇等炮制窖藏好的香粉,楠木粘粉。

【养生线香主要用的粘粉是楠木粉,天然的粘粉材料。对香品的影响最小。劣质的线香用的都是化学粘合剂】

 



和料:

将炮制好的合香粉放入合香盘里,然后按一定比例将山泉水加入到合香粉中,用香勺缓缓的顺时针搅拌,一直到没有水时,然后用手反复揉搓,到不粘手为止,反复揉搓是这些药之间相互作用,相互咬合的一个过程,这样烧出来的香气,气味就特别好。



挤压:将揉好的香泥放入挤香器里,缓缓挤出香条。

整理香条:将香条放在香箩上,用理香尺将香条理直,阴凉处干燥。



【制作盘香】:

将挤出的香条放在操作台上 用手工卷盘香器卷成盘香。



【制作香牌】:



反复揉搓香泥 使香泥细腻,香药更加融合,以防做成的香牌将来易开裂。



将揉透的香泥放在合香盘上用手掌压平 ,尺寸比香牌稍大一点。



然后用香铲沿着香牌的边缘将多余的香泥去除。


脱模成形。

浅谈徽州香事

 

徽州人的“香”,既有道佛两教的宗教之香,祭拜神灵祖先的宗法之香,利益族人的祛秽防病的香新安医学各类香丸、香药熏疗之香,更有感悟身心之文人香。

因避战乱、四面环山的徽州就成了中原士族避乱福地,三次大规模迁徙 ,带来了魏晋六朝的风雅和丰富多样的药香。南宋定都临安带来了新安江航运的兴盛,为徽州带来了内涵丰富的花果香、草木真天香及私房丸香。作为程朱理学故里的徽州以孝道为德行之本,尊祖敬宗,崇尚孝道,推动了祭祀用香的发展,201411月,“徽州祠祭”经国务院批准列入第四批国家级非物质文化遗产代表性项目名录,在徽州民间,佛道进香文化的普及,也大大推动了香文化产业的发展,其中最具有代表性的就是“华云进香”。明清时期,徽州被誉为“御医之乡”新安医学的发源地,丰富的医学著作几乎收录了所有香药和熏香及香灸的医方,用来祛秽,防疫、安和神志、改善睡眠及治疗各类疾病。

译文

A brief discussion on huizhou incense

In Huizhou ,there are mainly four kinds of incense which are the incense of Taoism and Buddhism ,the incense of ancestor worship gods, the incense of literati in different shape such as pills 、powder、stick 、cone and incense coil . Huizhou, surrounded by mountains because of the war, became a place for the central plain people to escape from the chaos. Three large-scale migrations brought the elegance of the wei, jin and six dynasties and rich and diverse herbal incense . LinAn, the capital of the southern song dynasty, brought the prosperity of xinanjiang shipping industry, and brought the  incense of flowers and fruits, the true incense of plants and trees, and the different incense of homemade pills to huizhou.Hui zhou ,As neo-confucianism hometown ,the filial piety is the foundation of the virtue, advocating filial piety, promote the development of the incense of the sacrifice, in November 2014, "huizhou worship ceremony in ancestral house " approved by the state council on the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage list of representative projects, in huizhou folk, the spread of Buddhism and Taoism pilgrimages culture, also greatly promote the development of incense cultural industry, one of the most representative is "HuaYun pilgrimages. During the Ming and qing dynasties, huizhou was known as the birthplace of xin 'an medical school , the "hometown of imperial doctors". Rich medical works included almost all the incense and incense moxibustion prescriptions, which were used to disinfect、sterilize and purify air ,create the relax environment prevent epidemic disease, to make you sleep well and treat various diseases.

 

徽州的香文化目前能找到的最早的实物依据,就是19593月,安徽省考古工作者在皖南屯溪市西郊发现了两座西周晚期墓葬,这两座墓葬出土了一大批青铜器,大约有20余件,其中最为代表的就是凤纹四方鼎和还有这个乳钉纹簋 ,青铜三足香炉。

In March 1959, archeologists in anhui province discovered two late western zhou tombs in the western suburb of tunxi city in southern anhui province. A large number of bronze vessels and incense burner , about 20 pieces, were unearthed in these two tombs, among which the most representative ones are the four square ding with phoenix pattern, the gui with nipple pattern, and the bronze three-legged incense burner. 

受南宋移都临安(今杭州)影响,从都城杭州深入徽州腹地的新安江水运业开始兴盛并连通京杭运河乃至钱塘江出海的重要水运交通枢纽。

新安江航线便成为徽州腹地人流、物流、信息流最便捷的进出大通道。屯溪古镇渐渐成为皖、浙、赣三省边陲的重要商埠。

南宋定都杭州,宋朝时期,军事不行,文化造诣很高。定都杭州,给毗邻杭州的徽州带来了大力发展。大量的木材、竹子、漆器、笔墨纸砚、茶叶等徽州土特产品需求量上升,开始从徽州运往杭州(新安江)。同时徽商们不仅带回了徽州腹地日需商品、粮食、布匹,还带回了当时杭州的熏香的养生预防的生活方式。

Under the influence of the southern song dynasty's migration capital linan (now hangzhou), the water transport industry of xin 'an river from the capital of hangzhou and deep into the hinterland of huizhou, began to prosper and connected the beijing-hangzhou canal and even the important water transport hub of qiantang river to the sea. Xinanjiang route has become the most convenient access channel for people, logistics and information flow in the hinterland of huizhou. Tunxi town has gradually become an important commercial port in the border areas of anhui, zhejiang and jiangxi provinces。During the southern song dynasty, they were not good at military affairs and highly accomplished in culture . Make capital hangzhou, brought the huizhou  energetically to develop. A large number of wood, bamboo, lacquer ware, brush, ink, paper, inkstone, tea and other local products of huizhou began to transport from huizhou to hangzhou along the Xin 'An river. At the same time, huizhou merchants not only brought back daily necessities of huizhou ,such as grain and cloth, but also brought back the lifestyle of the use of incense for healthcare and prevention of disease  at that time.

 


   草木真天香

这一时期的杭州,《武林旧事》中记载,临安的各大商业性酒楼中,会有各种小贩、艺人满足食客的消费需要,其中包括称为“香婆”的老太婆,她们不卖小吃杂货,更不卖艺,而是专门提供一项非常细化的“焚香服务”。因此,如果你是一名南宋时代的食客,只要带上现钱就可以出门。到了酒楼里,你可以买到一切服务,包括买到一炉香!你招呼一声,就有香婆为你捧上准备好的小香炉,炉里的香灰、香炭、香饼、香丸等等都已经由她收拾妥当。你在一缕香袅中尽情享受浮生一刻,然后付账离开,其他都不用操心,就像桌上的碗碟会有店小二收拾一样,那小香炉也自然会由香婆收走。

不难理解,这样的焚香服务之所以应运而生,经济实惠的草木香品供应一定是前提。香婆们所提供给客人的焚香之品,即使不是如“小四合”那样的材料简陋,也不会离之太远。了解到宋人对于草木香品的着意开发,那个时代整个社会大肆焚香的风气,才变得容易理解。

In hangzhou during south Song period, it is recorded in the history of Wulin that various commercial restaurants in LinAn would have various hawkers and entertainers to meet the consumption needs of diners, including the old women called "xiangpo", who did not sell snacks and groceries, let alone show off their skills, but specially provided a very detailed "incense burning service". Therefore, if you are a diner in the southern song dynasty, you can just take cash and go out. In the restaurant, you can buy all kinds of services, including a pot of incense! You say hello, there will be incense for you to hold the prepared small incense burner, incense ash, charcoal, incense cakes, incense pills and so on have been prepared by her. You would enjoy that moment, to please your heart in a wisp of sweet wave of the incense , and then pay a bill to leave , No need to worry about, just like the dish on the table waiter will collect , that small incense burner also can be taken away naturally by sweet old woman. It is not difficult to understand that the emergence of such incense burning services, economic and affordable supply of incense must be the premise.It is easy to understand the Song Dynasty has such good atmosphere of burning incense and people in song dynasty pay attention to the development of fragrant plants and trees

 

  文人香

北宋結束了晚唐五代亂世之後,采取崇文抑武的文人治國政策,文人备受尊重。庞大的文人群体是香文化发展的主导力量,他们爱香、弄香,对整个社会产生了广泛的影响。所谓“巷陌飘香”。有史料显示,南宋时期,香药的进出口额竟占到政府财政总额的四分之一。

经常和宋朝文人打交道有商业买卖的徽州商人自然也会受到影响,回到家乡,研究芳香性的药材,配制各种香丸和香牌。

 

文人热衷玩香

 

宋代的士大夫代表人物黄庭坚有一帧《制婴香方帖》,现在珍藏于台北“故宫博物馆”。

这张便笺如今被视为书法艺术的杰作,当初却是黄庭坚凭记忆为朋友录写的一个制香的配方。可见,那时,像他这样的文人士大夫脑子里都储着些经典制香方子,这大概是最好的一条证据,显示宋代上层社会对于品香一事热衷到了奋勇上阵、亲力亲为的地步。黄庭坚诗文:险心游万刃  燥欲生五兵  隐几香一柱  灵台湛空明

宋代文化的特质可说是明净素朴中蕴含着极度的高雅与精致。可惜的是,充分体现这一特质的文化成就中,只有诗词、瓷器、绘画等得以留存至今,

彼时高度发达的香事却和当时的音乐、舞蹈一样,只能通过文献记载意会。即使如此,即使仅仅窥见那时文人笔墨里的残影片阕,有宋一代在香事上的繁盛绮丽依然足以令后人惊异与羡慕

 

literati incense

 After the northern song dynasty ended the chaos of the late tang dynasty and the five dynasties, literati were respected for their policy of respecting literature and suppressing military power. A large group of literati is the leading force in the development of incense culture. They love and make incense, which has a wide impact on the whole society. So-called "alley with full of fragrance of incense ". Historical data show that during the southern song dynasty, the import and export of perfumery accounted for a quarter of the total government budget.

 Hui merchants, who often trade with those literati,were easily influenced 。when they came back hometown.also do research of local herbal,make different scented pills,scented pendant ect。

 

 Literati love to play incense 

huang tingjian, a representative scholar and doctor in the song dynasty, has a frame of "herbal incense recipe ", which is now collected in Taipei's "Palace Museum". Now the note, now considered a masterpiece of calligraphy, was originally a incense  recipe recorded by huang tingjian from memory for a friend. It can be seen that at that time, literati and scholar-officials like him had some classical incense recipe stored in their minds, which is probably the best evidence that the upper class of song dynasty was enthusiastic about incense tasting to the point of courageously  doing it by themselves. Huang tingjian's poem: The heart of the sinister swim ten thousand blade ,desire give birth to five soldiers。 Let’s burn incense to empty the mind and to clear our heart.

The characteristics of the song dynasty culture can be said to be pure and simple contains extreme elegance and refinement. Unfortunately, only poetry, porcelain, painting and other cultural achievements that fully embody this feature have survived to this day. At that time, the highly developed incense ceremony, like music and dance, could only be recorded through literature. Even so, even if only a glimpse of the literati brushwork ,the matter of incense prosperous in Song Dynasty is still enough to make future generations surprised.

 佛道用香  

徽州素有“上齐云、登仙境,朝九华、入佛国。的传统习俗,无论是“上齐云”还是“朝九华”,民间都会自发地形成一些香会组织 譬如“齐云香会”“九华香会” 厚福香会 、种福善会。

Huizhou is known as the tradition customs of "climb qi yun mountain,just like climbing fairyland, climb Jiu Hua mountain , just like into the country of Buddhism 。whether it is "to climb qi Yun mountain or "to climb jiu hua",  Hui zhou  local people will spontaneously form some incense associations such as "qi yun xiang hui" and "jiu hua xiang hui", such as "hou fu xiang hui" and "Zhong fu shan hui".

 

新安养生香

徽州,御医之乡,新安医学的发源地,擅长使用芳香性药材。

 

1)疏通经络开窍 利用芳香性药材的穿透、走窜之性。

2)预防五脏过早衰老  协助各脏器推动气血运行,营养五脏、分解消化、吸收储藏。

3)有效清除体内寒湿等邪气,疏泄、清热、逐秽、三法随机应用。

注意照顾脾胃和肾气,但不一味强调进补,常施以芳香性药材调理气血,使气机升降正常,血随气行,以通为补。这就是新安医学的精髓之一,人体与自然一样,尊重她们的规律,调动人体自身的免疫系统来修复身体和调养身体。

HuiZhou, The birthplace of the study of Xin 'an medicine, the hometown of  imperial doctor, was good at using aromatic herb

1) To utilize the penetration and channeling of aromatic herbs to dredge the channels and collaterals 

2) To assist the organs to promote the circulation of qi and blood, nourish the five viscera, decompose and digest, and absorb and store.To prevent premature aging of the internal organ,

3) effectively remove the body cold and damp and other evil qi, by catharsis, heat clearing,  removing body waste, of the three methods.

Pay attention to take care of spleen, stomach and kidney qi, but do not blindly emphasize tonic, often with aromatic herbs conditioning qi and blood, so that the blood can nourish the whole body.This is one of the essence of Xin 'an medicine. The human body, like nature, respects its rules and mobilizes its own immune system to repair and nourish the body.

 

汪机

汪机提出了以“调补气血,固本培元”的治疗思想,重视脾胃为气血之源,主张促使气血流畅,使经络畅通,则湿热自有出路,消除代谢产物。气血若旺则正能胜邪,气血一败则邪反胜正,故以调养气血,托补为先,扶正防邪。

 Wang Ji ,famous doctor in the study of XinAn medicine of Huizhou is proposed the treatment idea of "adjusting qi and blood, reinforcing the vital essence and strengthening the primordial qi". attaches great importance to the spleen and stomach as the source of qi and blood, qi and blood prompted fluent, smooth channels and collaterals, the heat and humid inside body has its own way, eliminate the metabolites. If the qi and blood are not able to overcome bad energy which can harm you , the qi and blood will be defeated, the bad energy will be victorious, so to raise qi and blood, to make up for the first, to protect against bad energy. 

孙一奎

“我们人体如同大自然一样”,徽州名医孙一奎 (太医院御医,孙一奎,明代休宁草市人(1522-1619),提出“生命运动在于气”的主题、“天行健,君子以自强不息”)。

我们人的气血如大自然一样 昼夜流行不息,这样就身体强健有力,不生疾病。一旦气血不畅,经络不通,就无法流行不息。我们身体就得不到营养,邪气就容易侵入 ,免疫力下降,各脏器 皮肤容易老化,过早衰老。

Yi kui  Sun

Doctor of imperial hospital in the Ming dynasty (1522-1619) ,born in HuiZhou

Our human body is like nature, huizhou famous doctor Yi Kui Sun put forward the theme of "the movement of life is qi", Our blood, like nature's, is a constant day and night, so that the body is strong and powerful and does not have disease. Once the qi and blood can not go smoothly, the meridian get obstructed. Our body is not nourished, the bad energy is easy to invade, the immunity is reduced, the skin and each organ is easy to age, premature aging.

 

 

叶天士

新安名医叶天士善用芳香性药材调拨气机,注意照顾脾胃和肾气,但不一味强调进补,常施以调理气血之剂,使气机升降正常,血随气行,以通为补。新安医学 强调经络的通畅的重要性 ,不一味的吃补品

Tianshi  Ye

Tian shi Ye are very good at making use of aromatic medicinal herbs Take care of thethe spleen and stomach and kidney qi, but not always emphasize the supplement, often apply the medicine of regulating qi and blood, make energy inside body rise and fall normal, to make up. Study of XinAn medicine emphasizes the importance of the unobstructed flow of meridian, and does not blindly eat supplements.

 

 

中国的传统工艺香

传统古法制香,有一套严谨完整的体系,无论是香料的认识、药材属性的了解、香方的确认、香料的配伍及炮制方法,其过程极为繁复且慎重仔细。

 制香如制药,以养神开慧为要

《本草纲目》纪载:“脾胃喜芳香,芳香可以养鼻是也。”脾胃属土,中医认为“土爱暖而喜芳香”,因此香气可以入脾、开胃、透心、透骨、通络、利窍、散邪、逐秽,既可养神养生,也可开窍开慧。

Chinese traditional herbal incense

Traditional method of herbal incense making contains a set of strict complete system and whether it is the understanding of the spices, herbs properties of understanding, incense making recipes confirm, compatibility of spices and processing methods, the process is extremely complicated and carefully.

 To make incense like a pharmaceutical, :《Compendium of Materia Medica 》say "the spleen and stomach like fragrant, so the aroma can easily go into the spleen and stomach meridian, according to Chinese traditional medicine theory,depends on what  herbal incense contain.aroma can go into different meridian ,such as hearts , kidney、lung、liver、urinary bladder meridian ect,  which not only can  restore energy keeping in good physical health, also can improve in mental health .

 

 

现代工艺的香

现代工艺香不用香药,而是使用人工化学香精,所制的香也失去了养生养性等许多功效。

Chinese Incense of modern craft

To make modern incense  it doesn’t use herbal directly , but use artificial chemical essence, and so the fragrance of the system also loses many functions such as health maintenance.




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